Mowa zależna (Reported speech) w języku angielskim.

Mowa zależna (Reported speech / Indirect speech) służy do przytaczania wypowiedzi. Mogą to być wypowiedzi różnych ludzi, jak również nas samych. Takiej formy mowy zależnej używamy, aby uniknąć cytowania (Direct speech). Aby lepiej zrozumieć w czym rzecz, spójrzmy na przykłady:

 

Direct speech Reported speech

Jane said: "I have to visit my brother".   Click to listen highlighted text! Jane said: "I have to visit my brother".

Jane powiedziała: "Muszę odwiedzić brata"

Jane said (that) she had to visit her brother.   Click to listen highlighted text! Jane said (that) she had to visit her brother.

Jane powiedziała, że musi odwiedzić brata.

He said: "My wife is sleeping".   Click to listen highlighted text! He said: "My wife is sleeping".

On powiedział: "Moja żona śpi"

He said (that) his wife was sleeping.   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) his wife was sleeping.

Powiedział, że jego żona śpi.

Dad said: "I have opened the window".   Click to listen highlighted text! Dad said: "I have opened the window".

Tata powiedział: Otworzyłem okno"

Dad said (that) he had opened the window.   Click to listen highlighted text! Dad said (that) he had opened the window.

Tata powiedział, że otworzył okno.

 

Słówko 'that' (że) znajdujące się w nawiasie jest opcjonalne. Można je używać lub nie. Nie wpływa to na zrozumienie zdania.

 

Jak zapewne zauważyliście w zdaniach powyżej po przekształceniu na mowę zależną zmienił się czas. Kieruje się to oczywiście pewnymi zasadami, które podajemy poniżej.

 

Mowa zależna - Reported Speech - następstwo czasów.

Przy tworzeniu mowy zależnej następuje zmiana czasu, którą nazywamy następstwem czasów. Ogólna zasada mówi, że musimy cofnąć się o jeden czas. Spójrzmy jakie zmiany zachodzą w poszczególnych czasach.

 

Direct Speech Reported Speech
Present Simple  
"I never drink milk", she said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "I never drink milk", she said. She said (that) she never drank milk.   Click to listen highlighted text! She said (that) she never drank milk.
Present Continuous  
"He is playing golf", she said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "He is playing golf", she said. She said (that) he was playing golf.   Click to listen highlighted text! She said (that) he was playing golf.
Past Simple  
"I bought a new TV", Jim said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "I bought a new TV", Jim said. Jim said (that) he had bought a new TV.   Click to listen highlighted text! Jim said (that) he had bought a new TV.
Past Continuous  
"John was preparing dinner", Alan said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "John was preparing dinner", Alan said. Alan said (that) John had been preparing dinner.   Click to listen highlighted text! Alan said (that) John had been preparing dinner.
Present Perfect  
"I have been to France", he said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "I have been to France", he said. He said (that) he had been to France.   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) he had been to France.
Present Perfect Continuous  
"I have been waiting all day", she said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "I have been waiting all day", she said. She said (that) she had been waiting all day.   Click to listen highlighted text! She said (that) she had been waiting all day.
Past Perfect  
"I had visited my friend before I went to school", she said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "I had visited my friend before I went to school", she said. She said (that) she had visited her friend before she went to school.   Click to listen highlighted text! She said (that) she had visited her friend before she went to school.
Future Simple  
"We will try again tomorrow", they said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "We will try again tomorrow", they said. They said (that) they would try again tomorrow.   Click to listen highlighted text! They said (that) they would try again tomorrow.
Future Continuous  
"I will be reading this book all day", she said.   Click to listen highlighted text! "I will be reading this book all day", she said. She said (that) she would be reading that book all day.   Click to listen highlighted text! She said (that) she would be reading that book all day.

 

Mowa zależna - reported speech - czasowniki modalne.

Zmiany dokonywane w mowie zależnej dotyczą również niektórych czasowników modalnych:

 

Direct Speech Reported Speech
will would

He said: "I will be late"   Click to listen highlighted text! He said: "I will be late"

On powiedział: "Spóźnię się"

He said (that) he would be late.   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) he would be late.

On powiedział, że się spóźni.

shall would lub should

He said: "I shall visit you this weekend"   Click to listen highlighted text! He said: "I shall visit you this weekend"

On powiedział: "Odwiedzę cię w ten weekend"

 

"Shall I send you this book?", he asked.   Click to listen highlighted text! "Shall I send you this book?", he asked.

"Czy wysłać ci tą książkę?", zapytał.

 

He said (that) he would visit me that weekend.   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) he would visit me that weekend.

On powiedział, że odwiedzi mnie w ten / tamten weekend.

mówimy o przyszłości dlatego 'would'

He asked if he should send me that book.   Click to listen highlighted text! He asked if he should send me that book.

Zapytał czy wysłać mi tamtą książkę.

pytamy, dlatego 'should'

can could

He said: "I can see your smile"   Click to listen highlighted text! He said: "I can see your smile"

On powiedział: "Widzę twój uśmiech"

He said (that) he could see my smile.   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) he could see my smile.

On powiedział, że widzi mój uśmiech.

may might lub could

I said: "He may be helpful"   Click to listen highlighted text! I said: "He may be helpful"

Powiedziałem: "On może się przydać"

 

He said: "You may sit on the chair"   Click to listen highlighted text! He said: "You may sit on the chair"

On powiedział: "Możecie usiąść na krześle"

 

I said (that) he might be helpful.   Click to listen highlighted text! I said (that) he might be helpful.

Powiedziałem, że może się przydać.

wyrażamy możliwość, dlatego zmiana na 'might'

He said (that) we could sit on the chair"   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) we could sit on the chair"

Powiedział, że możemy usiąść na krześle

udzielamy pozwolenia, dlatego zmiana na 'could'

must had to lub must

He said: "I must go home"   Click to listen highlighted text! He said: "I must go home"

On powiedział: "Muszę iść do domu"

 

He said: "It must be hard to work here"   Click to listen highlighted text! He said: "It must be hard to work here"

On powiedział: "Praca tutaj musi być ciężka"

 

He said (that) he had to go home.   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) he had to go home.

On powiedział, że musi iść do domu.

wyrażamy nakaz, dlatego zmieniamy na 'had to'

He said (that) it must be hard to work there.   Click to listen highlighted text! He said (that) it must be hard to work there.

On powiedział, że praca tutaj musi być ciężka.

przypuszczamy i dlatego pozostaje 'must'

Bez zmian:  
could could
should should
would would
might might

 

To niestety nie wszystkie zmiany o jakich musimy pamiętać. Postaramy się przystępnie je wyjaśnić w kolejnych działach.

Sprawdź również:

Mowa zależna - czas, miejsce i zaimiki osobowe.

Mowa zależna - pytania.

Mowa zależna - ćwiczenia.

 

 

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Click to listen highlighted text!